Study Guide

Study Guide

 

Birth, Childhood, Youth and Manhood before the Call:

  • Muhammad ﷺborn on Monday Rabi Al Awwal 12th (difference of opinion but we will go with this one). Wisdom behind not knowing the exact date is so that we celebrate by fasting.

  • œ Incident of the Feel [elephant]: When Abraha wanted to attack the ka’bah, Allah وتعالى سبحانه wouldn’t let the elephants move, and the birds pelted rocks at him. Abraha’s limbs started falling off and he died. This incident is important because it establishes Quraish as people of God (because Ka’bah was protected)

  • œ Abdullaah died before the birth of the prophet ﷺ. But Aminah was still alive.

  • Muhammad means “he who is praised.”

  • œ Wisdom behind being an orphan? 3 main points

  • œ He lived in desert for 4 yrs. Why sent to desert? 3 main points

  • œ He was under care of Haleemah Sa’diyah who, when he comes, they get a lot of barakah [blessings]

  • After he was weaned he was supposed to go back but they don’t want him to leave, so they ask for his stay to be extended. He stays, but after two yrs, the strange event “The Visit” occurs (see book).

  • œ Abu Talib loved the prophet ﷺmore than his own sons.

  • œ Wisdom behind being a shepherd? main points

  • His youth

  • How Allah (SWT) was preparing him for the mission of Prophethood that lay ahead of him.

The Seclusion:

  • œ Prophet ﷺ marries Khadijah at 25 years old after she heard the excellence of the character of the prophet ﷺwhen she sent him on a business expedition to Syria with her slave Maysarah.

  • Most accepted opinion is that she was 29 and not 40, and she bore: Qasim (hence the prophet ﷺ’s kunya [nicknamed]: Abul Qasim),

  • Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, Fatima, Abdullah. All sons died during childhood, all daughters lived to see their dad become a Prophet, and Fatimah lived longest—died 6 months after Prophet (saw)

  • œ When Muhammad ﷺwas 35, a flood devastated the ka’bah (which was already weakened by a fire earlier), was about to be collapsed. Quraysh decided to rebuild; Prophet Muhammad ﷺwas asked to decide the best way to resolve the conflict of placing the black stone in the kabah.

  • œ The prophet ﷺwanted to help out his uncle Abu Talib, so he told Abbas (Abu Talib’s brother) to take one of the many sons of Abu Talib to look after.

  • At Age 40 he سلم و عليه ا صلى went to cave of Hira (sometime 3-4 days). Age 33 – physically set. Age 40 – mentally clear.

  • Angel came squeezed him—see book for details.

  • He didn’t know he was going be a prophet. Why Angel squeezed him? Reasons.

  • œ Encounter with Waraqa ibn Nawfal and earlier with the monk Bahira

  • Relevance of Al ‘Alaq – Iqra (read). Al Muzzamil – Qum Al Layl (pray). Al Muddathir – give dawah stand up and warn.

Early Converts:

  1. Khadijah عنه ا رضى (first person and first woman)

  2. Zaid bin alHarithah عنه ا رضى (first slave)

  3. Ali عنه ا رضي (first child)

  4. Abu Bakr عنه ا رضي (first man)—details of how he became Muslim and how he carried on the mission.

Second Stage of Call:

  • Calling his family—details [Ali, Adul Muttalib and Abu Lahab’s reactions]

  • Open Preaching. After revelation of (26:214) he started openly calling. He went to the top of Mt. Safa (center of announcements in Makkah). He called each tribe individually. Hikmah (wisdom) in naming tribes?

Opponents:

  • Now the prophet ﷺ’s call is no longer secret after event of Mt. Safa.

  • Development of Opponents: He had 2 neighbors: Uqbah ibn Abi Mu’aith and Abu Lahab. Both threw garbage in front of the prophet ﷺ’s house. Umm Jameel (Lahab’s wife) would put thorns in his path.

  • Abu Lahab: Cursed the prophet ﷺat Mt.Safa. Ordered both his sons (Utbah and Utaibah) to divorce their wives (because they were daughters of the prophet Umm Kulthoom and Ruqqayyah. Said: “I will have no bond with you unless you divorce the daughters of Muhammad ﷺ.”

  • Qasim died at a young age (son of the prophet ﷺ). Same with Abdullah he died at young age. Abu Lahab came and made fun of him.

  • At first there was little opposition because they thought it was just a stage that the prophet ﷺwas going through.

  • Verbal abuse physical torture—lots of examples see book.

  • Nadwah) Quraish meeting. During those days, Quraish had another serious concern; the proclamation of the Call had only been a few months old when the season of pilgrimage was soon to come. So they didn’t want the people to hear of Muhammad ﷺ’s teachings.

  • They decided to consult Waleed ibn Mugheerah who said they should all agree on one name so they don’t look foolish. Saahir – They said that his words are enchanted, and that those whom he spoke to were put under a spell.

  • Allah says: “Verily, he thought and plotted; so let him be cursed! How he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted! Then he thought; then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way; then he turned back and was proud; then he said: ‘This is nothing but magic from that of old; this is nothing but the word of a human being!’” “Innahu fakkara wa qaddar” the plot here is what to call the prophet. They agreed on Sahir

  •  AnNadr ibn alHarith. He used to shadow the prophet ﷺ.Whenever the prophet would recite verses of ‘Aad and Thamud (generations before) he would tell them the stories of Persia and Rome and say “aren’t my stories better than Muhammad ﷺ.” Killed by the prophet ﷺat Uhud.

  • œThey tried compromising “we will worship your God for one day if you.” Surah Al-Kaafiroon revealed.

  • œ Physical Torture of Muslims: Khabaab ibn alAratt. ‘Umar عنه ا رضي used to torture him before Islam. They asked him what his worst torture was and he just showed his back with holes.

  • œ Story of blind girl who accepted. Zinira(Roman slave girl who embraced Islam), when pagans found she was Muslim they tortured her until she became blind, and said that the wrath of Lat an Uzza caused that, she said that Allah blinded her and He Alone could give her back her sight. She awoke next morn to find her sight restored. Tormentors claimed this was sorcery of Muhammad ﷺ

  • Arqam ibn Abi AlArqam (from Bani Makhzoum)  accepted Islam, so they used his house (which was located at foot of Mt. Safa, right by the ka’bah where many were so people didn’t suspect) where they would learn about Islam—details about what went on in there.

  • Islam of Hamza and Umar

Have I forgotten anything? Remind me by commenting on the post.

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Homework for Sat. 26th

1) Make sure you always check the course syllabus for reading assignments. For Sat. the 26th the readings are pp 8-31 in en_The_Sealed_Nectar.

2) I posted the question that I asked in class about Umar ibn Al Khattab [raa] on the forum for the class. Take a jab at the question–you don’t have to be right. It’s like asking yourself, if you do of course, “Why do I love the Prophet [saw] more than anything else in the world.” We’re all learning through the process, so I look forward to reading your comments. You will need to register to the discussion forum and then ‘activate’ through the msg you will receive via e-mail.

3) I also have the power point for  last week’s lecture one up for you to review.

Any questions about the homework? Please comment to this entry. See you all Saturday, 26th of Feb. Insha Allah.